Meaning: servile; servitude / Hebrew: “Abdown.”
The name of four biblical men and one city:
1. The son of Hillel, a Pirathonite, the tenth judge of Israel (Judg. 12:13-15). He is probably the Bedan of 1 Sam. 12:11.
2. The first-born of Gibeon of the tribe of Benjamin (1 Chr. 8:30; 9:36). King Saul was his nephew.
3. The son of Micah, one of those whom Josiah sent to the prophetess Huldah to find the meaning of the recently discovered book of the law (2 Chr. 34:20). He is called Achbor in 2 Kings 22:12.
4. One of the “sons” of Shashak (1 Chr. 8:23).
5. This is the name also of a Levitical town of the Gershonites, in the tribe of Asher (Josh. 21:30; 1 Chr. 6:74). The ruins of Abdeh, 8 miles northeast of Accho, probably mark its site.
Meaning: meadow of the house of Maachah.
This was the name of a city in northern Israel, in the neighborhood of Dan and Ijon, in the tribe of Naphtali. It was a place of considerable strength and importance. It is called a “mother in Israel”, i.e., a metropolis (2 Sam. 20:19). It was besieged by Joab (2 Sam. 20:14), by Benhadad (1 Kings 15:20), and by Tiglath-pileser (2 Kings 15:29) about B.C. 734. Elsewhere, it is called Abel-maim, meadow of the waters, (2 Chr. 16:4).
Its site is occupied by the modern Abil or Abil-el-kamh, on rising ground to the east of the brook Derdarah, which flows through the plain of Huleh into the Jordan, about 6 miles to the west-north-west of Dan.
(also spelled “Akkad”)
Meaning: the high land or mountains.
This was the name of a city in the land of Shinar. It was one of the cities of Nimrod’s kingdom (Gen. 10:10). It was near to the Euphrates, opposite Sippara.
Accad is also the name of the country of which this city was the capital, namely, northern or upper Babylonia.
The Accadians who came from the “mountains of the east,” where the ark rested, attained to a high degree of civilization. In the Babylonian inscriptions they are called “the black heads” and “the black faces,” in contrast to “the white race” of Semitic descent. They invented the form of writing in pictorial hieroglyphics, and also the cuneiform system, in which they wrote many books partly on papyrus and partly on clay. The Semitic Babylonians (“the white race”), or, as some scholars think, first the Cushites, and afterwards, as a second immigration, the Semites, invaded and conquered this country; and then the Accadian language ceased to be a spoken language, although for the sake of its literary treasures it continued to be studied by the educated classes of Babylonia.
A large portion of the Ninevite tablets brought to light by Oriental research consists of interlinear or parallel translations from Accadian into Assyrian; and thus that long-forgotten language has been recovered by scholars. It belongs to the class of languages called agglutinative, common to the Tauranian race; i.e., it consists of words “glued together,” without declension or conjugation. These tablets in a remarkable manner illustrate ancient history. Among other notable records, they contain an account of the Creation which closely resembles that given in the book of Genesis, of the Sabbath as a day of rest, and of the Deluge and its cause.